The major sites of Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley culture included not only parts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan but also the marginal parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh its spread
From Jammu in the north to the mouth of the Narmada in the south, and from the Makran beach of Balochistan in the west to Meerut in the northeast. The main sites of Indus Valley civilization were Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibanga, Lothal and Dholavira.
Mohenjodaro– Mohenjodaro city was a major center of Indus Valley civilization which is situated on the eastern bank of Indus river in Larkana district of Indus province. Mohenjodaro means “mound of the dead” in Sindhi language. It is estimated that this city was inhabited seven times and destroyed seven times. It was the most important of the excavated Indus cities and a prosperous city. and was an international city which was probably the capital of the southern region.
Harappa – The first excavation took place in the Indus Valley site. Many archaeologists excavated this site from 1920 AD and as a result the Indus Valley civilization came to light. Harappa is located on the banks of the Ravi River in western Punjab (now Pakistan). A parallelogram shaped ghari (small fort) was built in Harappa. A wall was built around this city to protect it from enemies.
Kalibanga– Kalibanga is situated on the banks of Dhaggar river (ancient Saraswati river) in Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. The Indus Valley civilization once flourished here. Some scholars believe that probably Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kalibanga were the three capitals of the Indus Valley Empire.
Lothal– Lothal is the most important site of the Indus civilization in the Gujarat region. This mound is situated in the limits of Sargwala village, about 16 km south of the town of this name in Ahmedabad district. A new chapter has been added in the history of Indus civilization by the excavation done here.
Dholavira– Dholavira is located in the Kutch region of Gujarat. Dholavira also has a fort. All the three stages of Indus Valley civilization are found at this site.